... connecting the future...

   backxnet.gif (1593 Byte)  downldgif.gif (1456 Byte)

Sysop-Commands

This describes the node-commands important for the Sysop part. All extended commands are applicable fundamental within the BOX. Whoever has installed an XNET-BOX already once will find the way around here quickly.


SYS

The Sys-command can only be used on the node-level and is not inputted in the box. Nevertheless, the Sysop can itself within the box-surroundings login, with input: XSYS. Here is to be considered however that for example some terminal-programs, that generate the password, that password-string doesn't pass out, automatically (GP, SP etc.). After input of SYS, the node sends a 5-digit cluster for the login of the Sysops. On this occasion, the password must exist in the CFG-Data on the node. That password-string can be long as 80 characters, however it’s not suggested to be under 40. The structure is similar to the Sys on the Flexnet Digi Node.

From the radio-side, the node is only to be interrogated to Connection and then the Sysop-String with at least " sy ", then the node returns:

=> sys
62 36 65 13 34

These digits are now to be answered with the sign of the password. A receipt, whether the sent back password string was right or faulty, returns in the standard prompt:

=>

The file NETROM.LOG will log registers from each input of the SYSOP-command storing date and time it was generated and by whom.

for example:

14.01.96 19:27:05 DL1XYZ :SYSOP REJECTEDS 
16.01.96 9:10:34 TERM: * * * STARTING, X)NET V0.16, JAN 05 1996 21:49:24, 
19.01.96 13:32:23 HDLC :TXOKS: FRMR TO DB0BAX 
19.01.96 19:28:28 DL2GWA :SYSOP ACCEPTEDS 

In the log-file, the Sysop can store short notes. With LOG < TEXT >, only in Sysop-Mode is that possible. The text is deposited in the Log . The Log is passed out with the CAT-command: CAT NETROM.LOG

When you first load your node you must enter in your own processing port information. To do that and under SYSop mode specify the router and its local information. Example: = >route local add 0 n1uro-9 nd CHICPE

The stated Port 0 is declared only for syntactic reasons, it is ignored.

· restrictions

Any Restrictions can be adjusted to each terminal-channel. Detailed Connects take place however only on the channels that are identical with the Terminal-Call.

* Terminal-Call: the Call, that is adjusted to channel 0 (monitor-channel). * It cannot be put down several Term-Calls!


Help

The Sysop gets a widened help over commands, that partial, in which Description with ! marked, only in the Sysop mode is accessible .

command: description 

ATtach: !attach driver 
Bbs: Mailbox 
C! : Connect without reconnect 
Connect: Connect 
DAMA: DAMA USERS AND PRIORITIES 
Dest: Destinations 
DETach: !detach driver 
You: !list directory 
EDIT: !edit writes file 
EXECute: !execute script file 
Help: help 
Left: show of to NetROM partner left 
LOAD: !UPLOAD BINARY FILE 
LOcals: show local nodes 
LOG: !print log Messages 
MSg: message to other users 
MY: !set my call and alias 
NEws: news 
Nodes: lists Nodes 
NRR: sends NetROM Record route pack 
PASSwd: !set New password 
PAram: !L4 parameter 
Port: port parameter 
HP: PROCESSES 
Quit: quit 
READ: !read writes file 
RESET: !Reboot system 
RM: !REMOVE FILE 
Router: !router commands 
RUN: !exit at run next application 
SAps: SAPs 
START: !START BACKGROUND PROCESSES 
Stati: statistics 
SYsop: sysop 
TERM: !switches terminal on and off 
User: shows users 
Version: software version 
XCOnn: !list of users which can use con command 
ARp: !arp commands 
IPROUTE: !IP ROUTER COMMANDS 
IPSTOP: !STOPS IP ROUTER 
MYIP: !SET OUR OWN IP 

External: 

CAT DEL IP LS MONITOR POSTMORT RBIN SLEEP 
TIME XTRACT FLASHCPY MH INFO WWW 

For more details enter: help <command>. 

The Sysop-Command is clearly widened opposite the Help-Command of the User. Commands preceding "!" are for SYSops.. These commands are not shown to a User.

The Help-List of the " Externals " can be different from nodes to nodes; ever after, how many available external programs vary from node to node.

The following description displays only the particular Sysop commands. The generally usual commands are already mentioned in the Help-commands for User.


ATtach

The Attach-command connects a physical device with a driver. Example:

ATT SCC1 HSKISS 8 4

The " device " SCC1 in the TNC3 is connected with the driver HSKISS. The physical Ports of the HSBus starts with 8, Port 8, Port9, Port10 and Port11. For most 4 Ports should be headed over this bus.

The HSKISS-driver fully automatically recognizes the baud rates of the connected TNCs. A particular Arbiter-Hardware is required for the High Speed Bus.

ATT COM2 KISS 1 1 9600

In this example, the "device" COM2 is connected with the driver KISS. The port number on the XNETBOX is port 1 and contains 1 channel with a modem speed of 9600 baud. Maximum users per channel settings are shown later. This would be preferred when using PC to PC via null-modem or attaching a TNC2 to the XNETBOX. Each COMx port requires its own attach statement. The node can load these automatically when entered into the file AUTOEXEC.NET.

The baud rates of the modems are not recognized automatically with a Token ring-Configuration and bauds are therefore written down manually.

Physical devices in the TNC3 are the SCCs

Physical devices in the PC are:

Drivers are:

= > Cross-reference: XNet-Configuration for TNC3 is described in the appendix near.


DETach

The DETACH-Command removes a driver of an appliance (Device). Example:

DET SCC3

Hereby, SCC3 becomes free.


You

The directory-command generates a list of the Node-directories/files. The wildcard * is allowed, for example DIR *.TXT lists all TXT-Files.


EDIT

ASCII-texts can be edited with Edit. This command corresponds to the XEDIT of the XNETBOX.


EXECute

Execute starts a text file with the Ending .NET, in which further XNet-commands stand, Script-Date or Batch.


LOAD

Load makes possible a " upload " of binary-files into the RAM/HDD-storage of the node. The Load-Command allows an attach of ASCII-text files, that contains text-macro scripts. See also " useful tips ".


LOG

The log-command is a useful relief organization-tool for Sysops. When the node is started, the node LOG gives among others Router information of L3/L4-link layers. The momentary Link situation " can be pursued consequently over a longer time period live ". Live links must be stopped the terminal with the Term-Command, otherwise the editions take place at the Console. The log-command can also be used for it in order to deposit a short commentary into the Log file like for example

This line is deposited in the NETROM.LOG

In the Log file NETROM.LOG, the text becomes < this line.... > with date and time of the text-originator stored.

About, to look at process-news, aimed can with

LOG + DAMA ROUTER

or

LOG - ROUTER TRASH

News is filtered. In the first example the log shows only Dama and Router by the ´+´; in the second example the log shows everything besides Router and Trash since the process-news were excluded Router and Trash by the ´-´.


MY

The Call/Terminal of the Node and if necessary netrom ALIAS takes place with MY. As well, a prompt can be written down with MY PROMPT. One might wish to change their prompt to look more like X1J or Flexnet. The ALIAS entry with MY ALIAS XXXXXX CHICPE, alias entries are case sensitive.. The netrom alias has at most 6 character alias.

MY CALL = Enters the Node-call, a -SSID can be joined optional. 
MY ALIAS = Enters the alias. 
MY IP = Ip address of the node.
MY PROMPT = Enters the Prompt string (within the node-level). => is the default prompt.
MY TCALL = Enters the Terminal-Calls 
MY DEFPORT = Enters the Default outbound port.


PASSwd

The Sysop-Password can be altered with PASSWD. The syntax corresponds to the XPW of the XNETBOX. PASSwd alone gives a closer look at security.

PASS

sends:

Security: 1 
Passwd: 40 Characters 

The Password-String is not passed out. Only one hint appears from how many signs the password takes place before a new string-entry with

PASS 1U234A56C78Y90........


Parameters

The L4-Parameters of the node can be set through the PA-Command on the individual processes. Alterations happen through the parameter-command + Subcommand + parameters No. + Value. for example:

PA BO BUF 500

set the Buffers for the value 500.

PA

Subcommands are: 
Name Description 
boot NetROM parameters
tnc TNC parameters
trans L4 - transportation layer of parameter 

* * * The following parameters actively become after a Node-Reset only * * *

PA boot

Pa name Value position Description 

1 buffers 400 [100, 4000] maximum number of memory buffers
2 destins 800 [16, 4000] maximum number of memory buffers
3 heards 50 [1, 400] maximum number of heard calls
4 l2saps 50 [10, 250] maximum number of L2 connects
5 l4saps 50 [10, 250] maximum number of L4 connects
6 nodes 200 [1, 4000] maximum number of nodes
7 terms 4 [1, 50] maximum number of terminal channels
8 users 50 [10, 250] maximum number of users

 

BUFFER - the to size of the Node-RAM-Resources should be available to buffer-storage enough. This parameter depends on the storage-production of the Digis and should therefore be checked. The value-area goes from 100 to 4000 buffers. Default is 400 buffers.

DESTIN - maximum number of the entries into the Destination list. Comment: the number of the Destinations must be put in individually with each Digi. Digis that possess no direct FlexNet-Networking can have these entries with the default-value 16. If a FlexNet-Neighbor is connected however, the number of the entries follows the necessary needs. In this example, up to 800 destinations are possible.

HEARD – the number of the entries for directly heard stations into the Myheard-List (MH)

L2SAP – the maximum links for L2 transport.

L4SAP - the number of links for L4 transport.

NODES - number of the Nodes-Entries in the Nodes table. With very big networks, it can be advisable to restrict the size of the N-List. The maximum of 1000 Nodes can be accepted into the Nodes Table. Default is 200 Nodes.

TERM – maximum number of terminal channels of the node.

USERS – maximum number of users can use the node simultaneously. The value-area is enough from 1 to 250. Default is 30. This value suffices in most cases. Nodes with high traffic may wish to raise the value.

PA TNC

Pa name Value position Description 

1 bbs 1 [0, 1] bulletin board system 
2 hs 1 [0, 1] heard lists 
3 ipolls 30 [0, 128] maximum length of ipoll frame
4 r 1 [0, 3] digipeating toggles
5 u 0 [0, 1] CTEXT toggle

BBS – on/off toggle. 0=off, 1=on.

H - Heard-List toggle.. 0=off 1=on. One should always switch on!

IPOLL - maximum length of the IPOLL-Frames, value 0.... 128).

R - Digipeating toggles. 0=off. With turned off Digipeating, hop to hop"-Connects are still "possible", but no Broadcasts " digipeated " will take place. One is suggested.

U TNC-Connect-Text (CTEXT) toggle. One should always turn off since the Connect texts are set aside as files.


Port

The configuration of the User - and Link ports takes place through the Port Command with corresponding Port number, PORT 1, PORT 2 etc.

Pa name Value position Description 

1 bauds 9600 [300 ,1600000] baud guesses 
2 calibs 0 [1, 60] Calibrate [min] 
3 DAMAS 1 [0, 1] DAMA 
4 dbauds 1 [0, 1] duet baud 
5 duplexes 0 [0, 255] Duplex 
6 persist 255 [10, 255] Persistence 
7 qualities 128 [30, 255] Quality 
8 reset 0 [0, 1] Reset port 
9 retries 10 [5, 255] Retries 
10 slots 1 [1, 60000] slot-Time 
11 t3s 180000 [30000, 600000] link activity timer 
12 txdelay 220 [1, 60000] TxDelay 
13 WINDOWS 7 [1, 7] L2 WINDOW SIZE 

Port parameters can be altered through the Port Command, for example

PORT 1 RET 20 or PORT 1 9 20

Here, the Retries on port 1 on Port have a value 20. The values can move only within that in the category position of stated value-table. The syntax is for each Port therefore as follows: PORT < Port Number > < parameter-number > < value >

Baud - the modem-baud rate of the corresponding Port. With Token ring-Digis, the baud rate is to be put in manually for each Connect port since the modem-baud rate is not recognized automatically like with the High-Speed-Bus. This holds true for the TNC2 in KISS mode also.

Calibrate - toggle the station for tnc calibration. To be used for the adjustments of transmission, etc.

Dama – toggle for the selected Port DAMA-Master. 0=off, 1=on.

Duplex - handes itself with this Port about a Simplex-TNC-Channel, then the value 0 writes down. With Duplex-Links, optional can the PTT-time of 1... 255 seconds is put in. Not needed with TNC2.

Dbaud - toggles a Dual baud-TNC. For example 1200 and 9600 baud ports exist on one TNC.

Retries - number of retries for the L2-Link layer. With infringement of the value, the connection becomes disconnected. The stated number of retries refers to a connection between nodes and User.

L2-Window Size – maximum number of info frames per L2 link.

Persistence - likelihood in which a packets are sent after the channel has become free. P-Persistence- (0-255)

Reset - the Port Channel is put back by the Reset-Parameter (1).

Quality – Net/Rom direct neighbor quality. The at most possible value is 255. Default is 128; however check with your network coordinators for suggested settings. We recommend 203 or 228 depending if the node is being used as a ‘hub’.

T3S - Link Activity Timer; this parameter determines the time, after which the Layer2 checks, whether a Link still exists if the whole time was no activity previously. Becomes like with the Transport-Layer also for annulment of deadlocks on Layer2 uses.

Slottime - declares the duration of the time-slit for the P-Persistence-S. Every time if the TNC a package to transmit and that lay described coincidence-number under slot-Time outside the P-Persistance-command, is waited for the duration of the time-slit then and is gone through the P-Persistance-Procedure again afterwards. Recommended: 9k6, 1k2, 19k2 = 100ms

TxDelay - station-heat-time after the high-key of the station up to the Transmit of the first data-package.

WINDOW – L2 Window size setting. 7 is the default value.


READ

Text-Files can be finished reading with READ. This command corresponds to the XREAD of the XNETBOX.


RESET

Reset will shut down the node! USE WITH CAUTION! A Sysop reset will allow a 10 second window to cancel and the reaction within the 10 Second window are noted in the NETROM.LOG. The node WILL NOW RELOAD unless the machine is programmed to handle such from batch programming or execution of a program to reboot the PC.


RM

Remove allows deletion of files from the drive of the node. Wildcards * is not allowed. These are allowable only with the Del-command - > see DEL.


Router

[Parameter, Layer 3,]

different parameters of the node are entered using the R-Command. An input of the capital letters suffices.

R < RETURN >

generates following list:

Subcommands are: 

Name Description 

bc netrom broadcasts 
flexnet flexnet link of partner 
local local Nodes/Destinations 

Explanations to the Subcommands, see the overview in the appendix to this,:

R BC

Subcommands are: 

Name Description 

add add broadcast 
delet delete broadcast 
list, broadcasts lists 
send, broadcast sends 

R FLEX

Name Description 
add add flexnet-station 
Del delete flexnet 
list, flexnet lists 
para set flexnet parameters 
reset reset flexnet 

R LOCAL

Subcommands are: 
Name Description 

add add local 
delet delete local 
list, local lists 

Examples:

In order to send out a Broadcast, that should take place at HB9AK via him/it at the Port 2 directly connected partner DB0ABC, one carries over the Router-Command following a:, Router, that, Broadcast, through adds on Port (2) at, HB9AK, over, DB0ABC. The input looks therefore as follows:

R BC À 2 HB9AK DB0ABC

When sending to TheNet, one would wish to add a route to be sent to NODES. An example would be:

R BC A 2 NODES

When digipeating nodes through a FlexNet system to TheNet, two things need coordination. On the XNET system, you must digi your NODES into the neighbor FlexNet. On the Flexnet system the sysop must have a Link route set to NODES on the port where TheNet neighbor is. In our example, station N1VHB is running PC Flexnet. The two examples are:

Xnet:

R BC A 2 N1VHB NODES

Flexnet:

L (Port #) NODES

Flexnet will automatically digi the xnet nodes broadcast out the port. No <D> for NODES will appear on the flexnet network however the neighboring TheNet node will accept netrom nodes from the XNET system. This scenario is ideal when trying to transport L4 frames through Flexnet systems.

Unlike the limitations of Flexnet, Xnet may carry more than one digipeat node path in the route for the nodes broadcast. In the following example, station N1VHB is running PC Flexnet and station KA1OXQ is running a TheNet in digipeat mode:

R BC A 2 N1VHB KA1OXQ NODES

Netrom nodes are then accepted by other netrom nodes within the transmission range of KA1OXQ.

A list of which Broadcast-Nodes exist can be seen by entering:

R BC L

Another example: the activated Broadcasts should be sent out every 15 minutes. The entry is planned as follows:

R PA BR 900

In order to send out a Broadcast immediately, one sends the command

R B S

at the node.

Entries are planned with the ADD-Command:

ROUTER LOCAL ADD < PORT > < CALL > [via call] < N|D|ND > [ALIAS]

                 
Port = hardware port number
Call = callsign/ssid of the station
{via call} = digi route if any
n = TheNet (Net/rom) or ax25 node
d = FlexNet
nd = both
alias = node alias name

On no account, nodes that use the Netrom-Protocol (such as TheNet nodes) should be entered here. Such entries would have fatal consequences for the network. You may however enter in Flexnet digis as a node. Xnet’s router will automatically assign proper routing when it hears the netrom node.


RUN

XNet is finished and starts the stated program-application, for example RUN FLASHDIG.APL


START

Programs, that run in the background while the node is up. These are activated with the start-command, for example IP-ROUTER or CONVERS.

START CONVERSD

Loads the Convers module. Other such modules include BEACOND, CROND etc. Beacond is used for entering in your Beacons as well as your ID. (see note below)


TERM

The RS232-port of the node can be reached through the TERM-Command. Hereby a process switch, increases itself, sees statistics. This command should be input only over radio, then afterwards the TNC can not be spoken to over the terminal-interface. After a Node reset, Term is on switched in principle, i.e. the RS232-port is active. This may cause a TNC2 to be taken out of KISS mode. Like with RESET, it is highly suggested not to be used.


TIME

System-date and time of the node are entered with the Time-command. If it becomes nevertheless necessary to rearrange the time, for example to UTC

TIME 19 02 96 12 03 00

The sequence is DD MM YY HH MM SS, therefore day, month, year, hours, minutes, seconds.


ARp

Address resolution Protocol,

ARP defines the hardware-address to a combination from IP-Address and interface. If it was fixed, the interface and the IP-Address with IPROUTE, then the hardware-address is now fixed with ARP. With AX.25 and NETROM, this is the Route of the TCP/IP stations in each case. With P, it is the interface-name:

ARP ADD < IPADDR > < INTERFACE > < HARDWAREADDRESS >

with < INTERFACE > = NETROM | AX25

Semantics: an IP-Packet at the address < IPADDR > and the interface < INTERFACE > should be referred, it becomes at the hardware-address (also MAC-Address) < HARDWAREADDRESS > sent.

Example:

ARP ADD 44.44.10.2 NETROM K1MEA-1

If the Router wants to refer packets at the address 44.88.44.1 over NetROM-Protocol, then the Route of N1URO-7 is put in as NetROM.

With help of the ARP-Protocol, the AX25-Interface could determine a hardware-address from also itself from. The present version from, XNet not yet supports this however.

ARp

Subcommands are: 

Name Description 

add add arp entry 
delet delete arp entry 
list, arp lists entries 

An ARP-Entry could look as follows:

44.88.44.30 AX25 N1HWQ-8 0 1084 


IPRoute

IPROUTE defines at which IP-block is routed over which interface. The IP-Address as goal-statement is not enough, because IP-Packets can from XNet on two different types is further-sent over AX.25 with PID CC, or over NetROM with PID CF. Therefore, an IPROUTE-Entry takes place with the statement of an interface.

Syntax:

IPROUTE < SUBNETIP>[/<BITS >] < INTERFACE > < IPADDR >

with < INTERFACE > = NETROM | AX25

Semantics: an IP-Packet with the Digi an IP-Address with the first < bits > bit with the stated Subnet address < SUBNETIP > agrees, then this package becomes over that < INTERFACE > at the < IPADDR > referred.

Example:

IPROUTE ADD 44.44.10.0/24 NETROM 44.44.10.2

The IP-Address that begins with 44..44.10, i.e. 44.44.10.xxx, is referred over NETROM at 44.44.10.2. A solid IP-Route can be written down in this list.

IPR

The sub-command-list:

Subcommands are: 

Name Description 

ADD ADD IP ROUTING ENTRY 
DELET DELETE IP ROUTING ENTRY 
list, IP routing entries lists 

An IP-Entry could look as follows:

44.44.10.3 32 NETROM 44.44.10.2 2169 

in detailed representation the XNet-IP-Routers is explained in the appendix.


XCON

Over the Digi, a connection (also a Via-Connect) can be forbidden to one or several Users. To this, the Call of the Users or also several, with:

XCON - DG1ABC DL1ABC....

inputs. It is admittedly possible DG1ABC and DL1ABC can connect with a direct connect but not a Digi. A Blocked connection - both gets on a Connect

* * *can´t route 

Vice-versa, the possibility exists a Call to allow exclusively a Connect, about for example a "Private digi". XCON becomes " + DL1ABC " input, DL1ABC only can interconnect over the node. All other Calls get the above-mentioned message.

Positive or negative reputation-sign-entries become through the Command XCON + or XCON -, without further argument.

This is similar to BUDLISTing calls and connections.


STARTUP FILES

XNET when initially loaded from the command prompt reads off of 2 very important files. Those are: AUTOEXEC.NET and IP.NET. An example of my personal files being used on CHICPE:N1URO-9 in Springfield Massachusetts are as follows:

Autoexec.net:

ATT COM1 KISS 2 1 9600

ATT COM2 KISS 1 1 9600

MY CALL N1URO-9

MY ALIAS CHICPE

MY TCALL N1URO

START ROUTED

START IP

START BEACOND

START STATD

Ip.net:

MYIP 44.88.40.1

IPR ADD 44.0.0.0/8 NETROM 44.88.40.5

ARP ADD 44.88.40.5 NETROM N1URO-5

IPR ADD 44.44.9.0/28 NETROM 44.44.10.2

IPR ADD 44.44.10.0/28 NETROM 44.44.10.2

ARP ADD 44.44.10.2 NETROM K1MEA-1

ARP ADD 44.88.44.1 NETROM N1URO-7

BEACON ADD 600 1 ID text CHICPE:N1URO-9 in Springfield, Mass XNET 1.18

BEACON ADD 600 2 ID text CHICPE:N1URO-9 in Springfield, Mass XNET 1.18

PASS mypasswordstringisinsertedherebutiwontcopyitinthisfilenow

The load order of the files are: autoexec.net, then ip.net. It is suggested that you load your ‘attach’, ‘my’ (excluding myip), and ‘start’ commands in autoexec.net, then load the rest of your parameters NOT held in the node configuration files that are automatically generated and refreshed every 10 minutes, in the file ip.net as shown above.


BEACOND

To add beacons, legal ID, etc use the BEACON-Command. The format for which you would enter in beacons is as follows:

BEACON <ADD|LIST|DEL> <TIME> <PORT> <TO> {via call} text <TEXT STRING>

In my file example above, I have two legal ID beacons set to U.S. regulations of sending a UI frame to ID on both port 1 and port 2 every 600 seconds (10 minutes) that shows a text string of CHICPE:N1URO-9 in Springfield, Mass XNET 1.18. Beacons to CQ or other destinations can also be set using BEACON once BEACOND is loaded.


Please note that the english translation of this document was performed by Brian N1URO, and was taken from the online documentation provided on the xnet homepage. Back home to: http://ww2.n1uro.com/